When you do have surgery, you will undergo a procedure called Phakoemulsification. This is a common surgery that does not need a general anaesthetic - local anaesthesia are usually used. High-frequency sound waves are used to break up your crystalline lens, which are then removed from your eye. An artificial lens is then implanted in its place. This lens will not be affected by the elements that cause cataracts and will last you for the rest of your life. In many cases where no other vision correction was required before the cataract developed, your vision may return to normal and glasses or contact lenses may no longer be needed.
As there are no cures as such for cataracts, and the eventual treatment is to remove the natural lens, it is recommended that you take as many steps as possible to prevent them from forming in the first place. Preventative measures can include expanding your regular diet to include (free radical busting thing here) and using sunglasses whenever you go out in the day. You should consider having an anti-reflective coating on your glasses, as well as photo-chromic Transitions lenses that turn dark when exposed to sunlight. The best sunglasses to prevent cataracts are those with polarised lenses with an anti-reflective coating on the backs of the lenses.